Archive for March, 2014

The 7 Things You Should Inquire About Before You Buy Pepper Spray

Monday, March 17th, 2014

Submitted by: Doug Williams

While searching for the perfect types of self-defense, pepper spray often appears to be towards the top of the list. Sometimes named OC spray, because of its active ingredient being oleoresin capsicum, it is an competent non-lethal self-defense gadget for guarding your self in this harmful community that we all are in.

When put into use properly, OC spray can easily disable an assailant for 20-45 min’s and allow enough time for your injured person to flee the area and get in touch with the authorities. Additionally, several companies have Ultra violet dye inside their formulations, that aids in determining the enemy when they’re apprehended the cops.

Prior to buying OC spray, it is advisable to perform satisfactory analysis on the subject to ensure the product you ultimately choose is considered the most capable for the unique problem. Now we have listed several inquiries which are typically sought after concerning OC Spray.

Crucial Questions to Ask Prior To Purchasing Pepper Spray

1. How does someone pinpoint the overall performance of pepper spray? Should I search for the best OC ratio or do I need to concentrate on the SHU Ranking?

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2. What’s the most effective OC spray designed for my little girl that is attending college? What are the OC aerosols that work this industry exclusively?

3. Is pepper spray legitimate in all of the states? Is there precise legal guidelines or rules with regards to the dimensions or durability?

4. What are the certain manufacturers for instance Fox Labs or possibly SABRE RED that cater to particular consumer or law enforcement markets?

5. Do I Need To obtain a keychain or maybe 2,3 or 4 oz container?

6. Is there particular antidotes that you can purchase if I accidentally spray myself or another person?

7. Can regular OC spray do the trick on pets also or do I need to seek out certain dog pepper spray?

While performing analysis what is the best OC spray to purchase, the most effective assets are informational web sites for example websites which dive deeply into exact things in addition to finding reader feedback. Being familiar with these issues and then judge how they relate to your unique considerations is usually the best way to discover which OC bottle of spray to pick and above all, which one not to select. Comments coming from people in your precise situation can provide better piece of mind and may also make the shopping process less difficult. More to the point, it could allow you to make the correct investment which often can successfully protect you should you have to discharge your pepper spray – whether it is a keychain or two, three or four ounce container.


In conclusion, the choice to buy pepper spray is an important one and really should not be taken without due consideration. It is best to gather as much intel as is feasible within the industry in order to make the ideal purchasing choice. An essential part of this information challenge should be obtaining information and facts and studying informational web pages which include pepper spray websites, that happen to be very helpful as they appeal to like-minded people that pose essential questions much like the kinds above to make the ideal OC aerosol decision.

Choosing one is difficult, though with the right support, you will definately get there.

About the Author: I love to water the garden and take walks around the lake with my kids.For even more information and facts on how to

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Arcelor declares merger with Mittal Steel

Monday, March 17th, 2014

Sunday, June 25, 2006 

Arcelor, Luxembourg’s largest steel company, has reached in an agreement with Mittal Steel over a €26.9 billion merger (at €40.44 per share). The new company will be called Arcelor-Mittal. Mittal Steel will hold 45% stake in the new company. Arcelor would pay Severstal €130 million as a “fine” for the fall-out of their failed talks. Lakshmi Mittal (owner of Mittal Steel) and Joseph Kinsch (current Arcelor chairman) will be the co-chairmen of the new company. The new company will have a net capacity of 120 million tonnes.

Tributes paid to the victims of the July 7 2005 London bombings

Monday, March 17th, 2014

Tuesday, July 7, 2009 

A permanent memorial for the victims of the July 7, 2005 London bombings has been unveiled in Hyde Park, London, England. Today is the fourth anniversary of the bombings, when 52 people were killed by suicide bombers on board three Underground trains and a bus.

52 stainless steel columns standing 3.5m (11.5ft) tall were inaugurated in the presence of Prince Charles, the Duchess of Cornwall Camilla Bowles, Prime Minister Gordon Brown, London Mayor Boris Johnson and Minister for London, Tessa Jowell.

Each column represented “a unique person and a unique grief” according to the Minister for London.

Jowell continued, “Each one casts a shadow just as they do – each one standing tall and proud just as they did, and each one will in an individual way absorb and reflect light just as they did.”

A 1.4 tonne stainless steel plaque with the names of the people killed was also unveiled.

Prince Charles laid a wreath on behalf of the nation. The Duchess of Cornwall left a floral tribute for the families of the victims.

The families themselves laid roses and then met the prince and the duchess.

Oil leaking container ship might cause environmental catastrophe

Monday, March 17th, 2014

Sunday, January 21, 2007 

In the United Kingdom, an anti-pollution operation is under way after the stricken ship MSC Napoli started to leak dangerous heavy fuel oil.

The heavy fuel oil that is leaking from the beached Italian ship is extremely dangerous for the environment. Fear of pollution increased after the ship was further damaged during storms last Thursday. MSC Napoli was beached by Devon coastguards after it suffered heavy structual damage in the gale force storms of Thursday, 18 January 2007, that wreaked havoc across Northern Europe. The ship, which contains 160 containers of hazardous chemical substances, is listing at 35 degrees.

The entire 26-man crew was rescued by navy helicopters Thursday after severe gales. Cracks were found on both sides of the ship, but the current oil leak was not expected.

Around 2,400 containers were carried by the 62,000 tonne ship, some of which contain potentially dangerous hazardous chemicals.

The Coastguards have reported that up to 200 of the containers carrying materials such as perfume and battery acid are loose from the ship and they are looking for missing containers. South African stainless steel producer Columbus Stainless confirmed on Friday that there was at least 1,000 tonnes of nickel on board MSC Napoli.

A hole in the ship flooded the engine room and there’s now fears that the ship will break up. Saturday MSC Napoli was towed to Portland when a ”structural failure” forced the salvage team to beach it. As the storms have continued MSC Napoli has been further damaged.

The authorities have warned people about the pollution, which already has reached the beaches at Devon, but many want to see it on their own. Police have closed Branscombe Beach as more than 20 containers have broken up scattering their contents along the beach.

Sky News reported Sunday that the costs of the accident might be very high as thousands of pounds worth of BMW motorbikes, car parts, empty oak barrels and perfume might get lost in flooding containers.

Chilean earthquakes: in pictures

Monday, March 17th, 2014

Thursday, March 18, 2010 

On the Feb. 27, Chile was hit by an magnitude 8.8 earthquake; almost 500 were killed, with resulting tsunami destroying most coastal towns between Llolleo and Araucanía Region. A second earthquake last week, with its epicentre in Pichilemu, caused destruction in the Coquimbo and Bío Bío regions.

A Wikinews contributor is in the area, and we look at the extent of this natural disaster’s damage through his photographs.

Chip and PIN ‘not fit for purpose’, says Cambridge researcher

Monday, March 17th, 2014

Sunday, February 14, 2010 

University of Cambridge security expert Professor Ross Anderson has blasted the EMV system used worldwide for credit and debit card transactions, and known in the UK as Chip and PIN, after his research team discovered a serious vulnerability. The group were able to carry out purchases using a card, even without knowing the associated personal identification number (PIN), by using a “man-in-the-middle” attack.

Retail terminals at the point of sale require the cardholder to insert their card and enter their secret PIN before a transaction can be authorised. They then communicate with the microchip built in to the card itself, which holds the PIN. If the correct number has been given, this chip returns a standard verification code (0x9000) to the terminal.

In the researchers’ attack they inserted a genuine card into a second reader, connected to a laptop. The laptop is linked by thin wires to a fake card, which is inserted into the retailer’s terminal. The laptop relays the communications between the terminal and the stolen, but genuine, card, up until the stage where the PIN is to be checked. At this point it intercepts and responds with the verification code, no matter what number was entered. The retailer’s terminal then believes that the correct PIN has been entered, and the card can be told that a signature was used to verify the cardholder instead.

Their technique has been tested successfully on cards from six different issuers: Bank of Scotland, Barclaycard, Co-operative Bank, Halifax, HSBC and John Lewis.

The group say that not much technical skill is required for the attack, and suggested the equipment needed could be kept in a backpack, with the wires to the fake card running down a user’s sleeve. They believe the equipment could be miniaturised to the size of a remote control.

“In practice how this attack would work is that one reasonably technically skilled person would build a device that carries out the attack and then sell this equipment on the internet just like criminals already do,” said Dr Steven Murdoch who worked on the project.

Professor Anderson claimed that the attack could already be in use by criminals. “We have many examples of people who have had their cards stolen and then purchases made using the chip and pin,” he said. “They are adamant they didn’t use it but if the banks say chip and pin has been used you have to pay. I think many of these people would have been victim of the kind of technique we have developed.”

He was scathing about bank claims that the system was secure. “The banks are wrong. All the banks are lying. They are maliciously and wilfully deceiving the customer. If there was any justice then the police would be looking into this. The system is not fit for purpose.”

Consumer group Which? have also called for an investigation, stating that in a recent survey one in seven people said that money had been taken from their accounts without authorisation. Around half of these did not have the money refunded by the bank.

“We want the banks to look into these potential flaws,” said Cathy Neal from Which? Money, “because we have had many examples where the banks have said a pin was used and the customer said it hasn’t.”

Over 90 percent of UK card transactions at point-of-sale use chip and PIN, according to the UK Payments Administration. The attack does not affect ATM transactions, which use different standards. Mark Bowerman, a spokesman for the group which represents card companies, said that there was no evidence the attack was in use and emphasised that card fraud had fallen with the introduction of chip and PIN.

“We are taking this paper very seriously, as maintaining excellent levels of card security is paramount,” he said. “However, we strongly refute the allegation that chip and PIN is broken.”

The research paper has been made available as a working draft, and is due to be published at the IEEE Security and Privacy Symposium in May 2010. Members of the banking industry were informed of the vulnerability in early December last year.

Wikinews:Style guide

Monday, March 17th, 2014

The style guide deals with the ways Wikinews content should be presented to readers. See the Content guide for information on the reporting process. See Editing help for information on the wiki editing syntax.

This is not intended to be a comprehensive guide to English spelling, grammar, and punctuation; it is assumed that the majority of contributors are well-versed in writing for an educated native-speaking audience. A number of the external guides listed in this document are excellent references when seeking to improve your command of the English language.

The vast majority of news sources rely upon a manual of style, a collection of agreed-upon guidelines for writing style. A style guide helps writers and editors by providing a standardised way of writing. Style guides help ensure consistency in such things as headlines, abbreviations, numbers, punctuation and courtesy titles. Style guides therefore are most helpful.

A news style is developed with emphasis on the efficient and accurate imparting of information about events; following our news style suggestions should have the additional benefit of helping you write effectively if you are a newcomer to writing news.

The Wikinews style guide is aimed at producing understandable and informative articles readily understood by the majority of readers. Articles that do not adhere to the style guide are unlikely to be published.

The Wikinews style guide, like all style guides at working news organisations, is a work in progress and subject to change as new issues emerge and the language of news coverage evolves. Changes to the guide are not applied retroactively.

Elements of punctuation and grammar are not addressed by exactly the same terms universally. There is no intention to be regionalist in this manual; however, in the interests of causing the least confusion, the following terms are used for clarity:

In his 1946 essay Politics and the English Language, author George Orwell devised six easy tips to make anyone a better writer:

When naming your article, keep the following points in mind. (Most of them apply also to the body of the article, and are covered in greater detail further down this page.)

Articles must include at least the date as the first line of the article. This is most easily accomplished using the date template (if you were not present at the event you are reporting upon), so the first line of each article should include this code:

The template will add the article to the appropriate date category, and put the date on the first line in bold text. The date given on an article is should be of the day on which the article was published. The date on which the event happened is not the story’s date.

In journalism, the location in the dateline may either refer to the location of where the article was filed from or where the event happened even if the writer was not physically present. Currently, the dateline template is only used when a Wikinewsie is actually present to “file” the story (generally as original reporting). The template generates text in the following manner:

which appears like this in an article:

Saturday, January 1, 2005 

Mumbai, India — Massive floods soaked…

Wikinews does not sign articles as by an author. Articles may be edited by anyone, and are usually contributed to by more than one person, so a traditional byline is inappropriate.

The first paragraph (known as the intro or lede) should summarize the article in around 50-80 words, using one to three sentences.

Try to answer the basic questions of who, what, where, when, why and how. Try to fit most of these into the first paragraph. This is known as the “five W’s (and an H)”, and is the first thing to learn about news writing.

Every fact or issue mentioned in the first paragraph should be later backed up or expanded in the main body of the article. You needn’t explain everything fully in the intro, but what is mentioned should be fully explained before the reader finishes reading the article.

Most complete articles should have at least three paragraphs, and single-line paragraphs do not count for this purpose. Don’t post articles containing only a link to a story on an external news site and no story text. Such pages are quickly deleted.

One way to publish short briefs that you are not planning to expand further is in Wikinews Shorts.

If there is significant breaking news whose article is likely to be expanded, do go ahead and write a short (but useful!) summary as breaking news, and tag it with {{breaking review}}. You can add an {{expand}}-tag. This will invite other editors to work on the article. Note that just because a story has just broken does not mean it is in the process of breaking. Try and write at least a paragraph where news is breaking, but beware the pitfall that by the time it is reviewed the story may have already moved on to the point where it is no longer appropriate to publish a minimalist piece without expansion. See Wikinews:Breaking news.

Write to be easily understood, to make reading easier. A key, and strict, policy is absolute neutrality. See the neutrality policy for full details of this.

Beyond the first paragraph, try to stick to the following tips:

If you find your work is too wordy, try juggling word order to squeeze out unnecessary words. You may be surprised how many you can find! This gets easier with practice. Other users are likely to help you out.

The reason for inverted-pyramid style is twofold;

When adding opinions, unverified claims, speculation and the like it should always be attributed to the person or organisation that said it;

Articles should be written in the past tense or the present perfect. Headlines should be written in the present tense. Timelines are also written in the present tense.

Since we as writers are not in the business of predicting the future and are not psychic (arguably), it is best to stick to past or present perfect tense – especially since future events may change (or be cancelled). When writing about future or ongoing events, change tense as follows:

Articles may include a variety of links and citations. They generally fall into four groupings: links to external online sources, other Wikinews articles, links to background pages on other WMF sister projects, and websites with background or related information. Each grouping can have its own section; there should be a distinction at least between links to factual support (other modern Wikinews articles and external sources) and links to background pages and websites. The standard sections for these groupings are Related news, Sister links, Sources, and External links (in that order). Only the Sources section is mandatory.

Documents used as source material in the story need to be cited. This is to acknowledge prior art, so that information can be evaluated and verified by readers, and just as a general benefit to the reader.

Sources include online articles and, for original reporting, reporter’s notes.

Links to online sources should be listed after the optional Related news and Sister links sections, in a section Sources using the wiki markup ==Sources==. Bullet-point each source using a *. Do not leave blank lines between sources — this is for technical reasons relating to how the wiki markup is converted into HTML code. Sources should be listed chronologically, from the most recent to the oldest.

Use links to online sources, and include important relevant information about the source.

The important information when citing a source includes the author of the article (a person or organization), the title of the source, who it is published by, and when it was published.

There exists template code which may help you to format the information, {{source | url=Web site address | title=Article title | author=Name of author | pub=Name of Publication or Source | date=Date as Month DD, YYYY}}. Simply copy and paste the template into your story text, and replace the text after the equals sign in each template variable assignment. If you do not know a variable, for example the author’s name, include the variable name but leave it blank. (|author= ) Example:

Note that Month DD, YYYY should always be used for all dates in sources regardless of how the source cites the date. Do not use leading zeroes on dates between one and nine; day of the week or time should never be included. Dates should be according to the timezone of the source.

Many stories are provided by wire news agencies (e.g. the Associated Press (AP), Reuters, or Agence France-Presse (AFP)) that syndicate their content through other media outlets. Although the wire news agency writes the story, the carrying news media exercises editorial control in deciding whether or not to publish a story. Therefore, a report written by the Associated Press that appears in The Guardian should be credited as follows: the Associated Press as the author, and The Guardian as publisher. Where an AP author is cited this should be included. Where the abbreviation for the agency does not lead directly to a Wikipedia page (Eg w:AFP is a disambiguation page) the full name of the agency should be used (Agence France-Presse). For the BBC online news site, the link BBC News Online should be used.

Whenever possible, choose the wire agency’s site if the agency publishes its own stories. If this is not possible, try to pick a site that you think will have the story available online for the longest time, if you have more than one choice.

Articles from news sites which are initially from a wire service should have the wire service added to the author’s name, or just the wire service if no author is given. For example, “author=Anne Gearan, AP” or “author=Agence France-Presse”.

Academic-style numbered annotations or inline sourcing are generally not accepted on Wikinews. Instead list all sources used in the sources section.

Events may produce a variety of articles on Wikinews with different angles or covering different aspects of the events. Current events may also benefit from readers being directed to one or two appropriate articles. In addition, earlier Wikinews articles may serve as sources for the current article (see Wikinews:Cite sources for details of this).

These should be ordered with the most recent on top in a bulleted list, using the {{Wikinews}} template thus:

And here it is in use:

Related news

Do not overload the related news section, nor add articles published after the one you are editing. Use infoboxes, and other decorative templates, to offer readers collected article lists they may also be interested in reading.

Related and background content on other WMF sister projects may be placed in an optional section Sister links, below optional Related news and above Sources. A single call to template {{sisters}} can provide up to six links to pages on other sisters, in a bulleted list. Pages on most other sister projects, including Wikipedia, are not accepted as sources for Wikinews articles.

External links should not be included without good reason and are rarely used. Link to a central, relevant page, not multiple pages on a single website; do not create comprehensive link lists. Uses of external links include to link to an interviewee’s website when doing original reporting or to link to a controversial page which is the main focus of the news story.

Abbreviations and contractions are handled differently by different dialects of English, and there is no set rule regarding them other than to be consistent throughout the article, and the original contributor’s style choice is preferred. Acronyms and abbreviations should always be explained on or prior to first usage. For example, if a story relies on several points from the Associated Press then the first usage would be “Associated Press (AP)” and subsequent to that the abbreviation “AP” could be used.

Spelling may be contentious because it varies depending on the dialect of English. On Wikinews we generally follow the spelling patterns of the subject of the article (British English for articles about the UK, American English for those about the US, etc) as first preference, and those of the article’s first author where there is no obvious geographical preference.

Wikipedia has a list of spelling differences between American and British English which may be helpful.

Numbers below 20 are generally spelled out but above that actual digits are the norm. Where you start moving into the very large territory and are mentioning numbers such as 10,000,000 you should use the more verbal form of “ten million”.

Common sense should be applied here. Where you can use words as opposed to numbers you should, but not in cases where you would be writing “one hundred and forty-two” over 142.

Many ‘classic’ guides to English cite a rule that any number at the start of a sentence should be spelled out; Wikinews does not apply this rigourously, but it should guide your decision-making, especially in headlines.

Numbers indicating sequence follow the primary guideline for other numbers. Spell out first through tenth, but use numerals beginning at 11th and continuing through 23rd to 251st and beyond. Again apply common sense for large round numbers such as 1,000th being written as thousandth.

Either a comma or a point is acceptable, e.g. 1,5 is the same as 1.5; however, in English the latter is the more common and readily understandable format. Exercise caution in choice of format to avoid 1.509 being mistaken for one thousand five hundred and nine.

The decimal can be used to spell out large fractional numbers such as one and a half million to be “1.5 million” instead of “1,500,000” or “1 500 000”. In the UK, the US and several other nations commas are used as thousand separators and points are used as decimal separators. In other regions (e.g. South Africa) a space is used as a thousands separator and the comma is used as the decimal separator. Either is appropriate, but use first the style used in the region written about, second the style of the original author. Avoid use of the Indian numbering system words lakh and crore; these are ambiguous and not understandable to a universal audience.

It is best to avoid regional lingo or specialized monetary or financial jargon that is not in common, everyday use among the international readers of Wikinews, such as “bucks”, “kiwi” or “quid”. Currency codes as listed in the ISO 4217 standard are unique 3-letter codes that identify all internationally known currencies. While technically accurate, they may not be readily identifiable by most readers. For this reason, it may be best to spell out the name of the currency rather than relying upon the ISO currency code. This allows maximum understanding for the maximum number of readers. For example, almost everyone will understand what “1,000 Iraqi dinars” means as opposed to the ISO equivalent, “IQD 1,000.” Either way, it is a good idea to wikilink to the currency in question, to allow the reader quick access to information about the currency. Using the previous example, one could use "1,000 [[w:Iraqi dinar|Iraqi dinar]]" to yield “1,000 Iraqi dinar” or "[[w:Iraqi dinar|IQD]]1,000" to yield “IQD1,000.”

There are a few currency symbols that are understood by most English-readers.

However, they are not always unique identifiers for a particular currency. Also, there are many other less well-known currency signs. To aid the reader, all monetary denominations not listed above should be spelled out (“130.50 Swedish krona”) or prefixed with a currency code (“SEK130.50”) instead of using a symbol.

For the euro and the yen, you may freely use the symbol, instead of using a code. But for the $ (dollar) and £ (pound), further clarification may be necessary. Please read below.

For dollars, only the “$” is used. Please do not use the cent symbol (¢).

Since the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and many other countries all use dollars, it is important to label the type of dollar referenced. Pay particular attention to this because many newswires may report amounts in United States dollars, even if the local currency is different.

Sample dollar notation is as follows:

A number of countries use the pound as their currency. Among those, only the pound sterling (GBP), the currency of the United Kingdom and Crown dependencies, is consistently associated with the pound sign (£). Occasionally, it is used to refer to the Egyptian pound, but here LE or EGP are more common. Therefore, amounts in pound sterling can be referred to using only the “£” symbol.

If you cannot find this symbol on your keyboard, you may either use the HTML code £ or the words “pound” or “pounds” instead of the symbol. However, you should be able to find the character in the character insert box below the edit box.

Therefore, there is no need to further distinguish the pound sterling (GBP) from other forms of currency. It is assumed that when “pound” or the pound sign (£) are used, the amounts are in GBP unless otherwise noted. Keep in mind that “?” is considered an obsolete version of “£”.

The euro is the common currency for a number of European countries. To denote euro, only the euro sign (€), currency code EUR, or the word “euro” is needed. Do not use the cent symbol. If you cannot find the euro symbol on your keyboard, you may either use the HTML code: € or the word “euro” after the number figure instead of the symbol. You should also be able to find “€” in the character insert box below the edit box. Note, the plural of “euro” is officially “euro”; while the pluralization “euros” is commonly found, it is inaccurate.

When referencing when something happened or when something is scheduled to happen, use the following formats:

If something happened or is happening on the day you are writing your article, state it is happening today. This gives the story immediacy. If it happened the day before, say yesterday. If something will happen the next day, say tomorrow. For example:

Beyond yesterday, today and tomorrow, state the name of the day of the week, if it’s within seven days. Beyond seven days, state the actual date. For example, if you’re writing a story that is filed on a Friday (in this case June 8, 2007), it goes like this:

Wikinews style is to list the month, followed by the day of the month, optionally followed by the year. Single-digit days of the month should not be prefixed by a zero. Thus, for example: {{#ifeq:Mar|March||

Do not use “rd”, “nd”, “st” or “th” in a date. Years, when present, must be separated from the date with a comma unless only month and year is specified. Generally speaking, ‘this year’ and ‘last month’ etc are preferable since Wikinews articles are anchored to the date of their publication.

Months are generally not abbreviated.

No comma is needed in a month-and-year construction. A comma is needed between the date and the year and after the year in a specific date construction.

Time can be written in either the 24-hour or 12-hour form. To assist readers who may be unfamiliar with your preferred time format, you may wish to include the alternative format in parenthesis: ex: “18:30 (6:30 p.m.)”. Although this may seem like extra work for the writer, it is best to remember that Wikinews’s stylebook intent is ease of understanding for the reader, not to enforce strict technical regional accuracy.

Use a colon to separate the hours and minutes, except when using UTC when no separator is to be used.

Always clarify the timezone , which can be either the country / city referred to or the timezone name / abbreviation, and its offset to UTC;


When using the 12-hour format, morning hours before noon and after midnight are designated as “a.m.” – both lowercase with periods; hours after noon and before midnight are “p.m.” Again, lowercase with periods.

Exception: times of exactly 12 noon are called “noon” and 12 midnight are called “midnight” – neither is referred to as “12:00 a.m.” or “12:00 p.m.”

Improper time examples

On the first mention of a person in a story, write the person’s organization, title, and full name. Try to include a local link or Wikipedia link to their organization and name.

On subsequent mentions, mention only the person’s significant name without it being a wikilink. For western names this is the last name; many Asian countries use the first name for subsequent mentions.

If this person has not been mentioned for a few paragraphs, use a shortened title on the next use to remind the reader.

When a person is first mentioned as the source of a quote, a different rule applies.

Here, the order of importance (and order of referral) is as follows: "Quoted text," Full name, Organization (title), said. After that the same rules as above apply. An example:

On subsequent mentions, mention only the person’s last name without it being a wikilink.

If this person has not been mentioned for a few paragraphs, use a shortened title on the next use to remind the reader.

Here, again there is a difference between British and American traditions. Either tradition is acceptable, but whatever system is adopted for an individual article, it should be consistent throughout the story.

For titles other than Mr., Ms., Mrs., Dr., please spell the title in full on the first mention, although subsequent mentions may be abbreviated.

When a person has a title, general rules for capitalization are:

Wikinews honors the protocol common in the country of origin of any royalty mentioned.

In general, a person’s sex may be inferred and appropriate pronouns used. However there are certain cases where there may be confusion, or the subject expresses a specific preference, usually involving transgender/transsexual/transvestite or other sexual minority or sexual health topics.

In these cases, consult the following guide, numbered in order of priority:

Where the individual’s gender is an intrinsic element of the story, include an explanatory note stating the known facts; do not unduly sensationalize their part therein.

On the first mention of a body with a proper acronym or contraction, use a wikilinked full name. If you wish to use an acronym later in the article, place the acronym to be used in parentheses directly after the first mention, where the full name is used.

Thereafter, use the appropriate acronym/contraction sans-wikilink. Full capitalization of acronyms is standard.

Italicise names of publications and articles mentioned, including website names. Do not put web addresses into articles.

When the publication is something like The Boston Globe, note that ‘The’ is capitalised, except when using a common, shortened form, such as calling The Boston Globe simply the Globe.

Always use the full name of the publication on the first mention, not a contracted name. Unlike with acronyms, there is no need to explicitly define the contracted form in brackets after the first mention of the full name. Occasional exceptions are possible for extremely well-known acronyms, such as BBC, which can be used as an acronym even on first use.

Do not over-wikify articles. Link only particularly relevant background material. If your article is about a high-speed chase and accident, wikilinking the colour of the vehicle is probably not particularly relevant, but the city or region might be.

Links within Wikinews require no qualifiers. Links to the English Wikipedia ordinarily use the {{w}} template.

Local links often also use the template, which simplifies writing.

When linking to a Wikinews category or portal, use a mainspace redirect; thus, [[Japan]] rather than [[:Category:Japan|Japan]].

Do not link to another Wikinews article that would be more appropriately listed in the related news section. Do not link to dates.

It is almost always preferable to link to local redirects where they exist rather than to Wikipedia but individual exceptions may be possible. It may occasionally be necessary to link to other projects as well, such as Wiktionary. The {{w}} template has optional parameters to do these things.

HTML markup should be an absolute last resort within any article. Preference should always be given to wikicode.

Appositives are words (usually nouns with modifiers) that explain or identify the nouns they are placed next to. For example, consider this sentence, where the appositive is italicized: My dog, a golden retriever, enjoys peanut butter. (The appositive, “golden retriever,” explains and identifies “my dog.”)

What is the relevance of appositives to Wikinews? As a news website, Wikinews articles constantly explain the identities of people with the use of appositives. Incorrectly punctuating appositives is a common grammatical error. The following details a commonly accepted rule on punctuating appositives.

An appositive is offset by commas on both sides if the appositive is not vital to the meaning of the sentence.

An appositive is not punctuated if the appositive is vital to the meaning of the sentence.

See Category:Quotation templates for available quotation templates.

Professional news organizations will occasionally introduce errors in punctuation and spelling in spoken quotes. Be sure to proofread a quote before adding it to a story.

You may choose to directly quote or paraphrase a source:

When editing spoken quotes, or informal texts and transcripts intended for exclusive interviews (emails and text chat logs), it is permissible to correct typos and errors in punctuation introduced in the transcription process as long as the edit still expresses the meaning exactly the way the source intended.

When paraphrasing, be sure to word the statement so that it expresses the meaning exactly the way the source intended.

To exclude a section of quoted material for summarizing or avoiding a confusing section of quoted material, use an ellipsis (…) to replace the removed text. If many lines of a transcript are removed, place the ellipsis on a line of its own where the removed text would have been. Be sure the remaining quoted material is not taken out of context; the text must express the meaning exactly the way the source intended.

To add clarification to a quote or transcript, use square brackets ([]) to contain the words you have added, making sure your additions express the meaning exactly the way the source intended.

A number of other things should also be italicised. The names of ships should be italicised; if a prefix (such as ‘MV’ for ‘motor vessel’; see w:ship prefix) is used this should not be italicised. E.g.: MV Costa Concordia, RMS Titanic, USS Forestal. Similar treatment is to be given to spacecraft and aircraft with names other than a simple identification number, such as Clipper Maid of the Seas (destroyed over Scotland in 1988), or Space Shuttle Discovery.

Titles of works of music (to include both songs and albums), literature, films, art, and game releases should be italicised:

Where it is appropriate to use non-English text within an article it should also be italicised:

Notice that a translation is provided even for the most well-known words and phrases. The translation is placed in brackets and not italicised.

When including pictures with Wikinews stories, they must abide by Wikinews’s image use policy.

The most important reason why pictures are used in Wikinews stories is to help convey a clearer or more complete message for the reader. All images must be relevant to the story in which they are included. If this is unclear, then the relevancy must be detailed in a caption. The following code is for including a story image with a caption (Image, Specify box with caption, box size, caption, and image credit) that you may cut-and-paste into your stories:

Image captions should try to contain complete sentences. At the end of the caption, the original source of the image should be noted (if possible) and written in italics to offset it from the rest of the caption. Alternatively, {{Image source}} can be used.

For ongoing news events, such as the spread of a disease or virus (eg File:H1N1 map.svg), the image hosted on commons will be repeatedly updated. This means that the map on Commons is only accurate for a news article at the time of publication. To avoid this issue, the current map must be downloaded, and reuploaded to Commons with a date stamp in the file name. This new version should be used in the relevant Wikinews article(s).

When uploading the time-specific version of the image to Commons, please ensure that it is clear on the image page why an effective duplicate has been created. A short note such as “This time-specific version of the image is required to maintain consistency in usage and comply with the archiving policy on the Wikinews sister project” should suffice.

You should add category tags at the bottom of each article. At a bare minimum there should be categories for the geographical area involved (one for the country, and one for the region) and for a broad topic such as Category:Disasters and accidents.

The Wikinews date and dateline templates automatically add the date category to your article, linking it to a list of all articles from that date.

While you should obviously try to comply perfectly with this guide, it is difficult to avoid some small mistakes. Even the most experienced Wikinewsies will sometimes produce articles that do not comply with some of these points. Try to stick as closely as possible to this guide, and remember, if you get most things right, review should catch and if possible correct your occasional slip-ups.

General compliance with this style guide is mandatory for publication, but it is anticipated there will be situations when, for whatever reason, it is best to bend or break one of the rules in it. It is recommended you hold back on doing this until you have some experience, as understanding how to apply the rules is generally a prerequisite of understanding when, why, and how to break them.

If you have a journalism style question which is not answered by this guide, please refer to one of the below professional (and free) online style guides. You may also want to visit the Wikinews:Water cooler to seek more specific guidance on complex issues.

For general grammar, punctuation and word use issues:

Rta Cabinets: Options For Space Efficiency

Monday, March 17th, 2014

Submitted by: Eugene A. Makeev

RTA Cabinets are among the most popular home improvement products out in the market today. Other than the list of delightful benefits that ready to assemble cabinetry offers from great, great savings to luxurious options there is a whole lot more in store for homeowners who opt for this cabinet choice. Because of the high consumer demand manufacturers have continually innovated designs and constructions to help homeowners achieve more efficiency in their kitchen layout. And this article discusses some of the options that you can consider to maximize space in your kitchen remodeling project.

In the past, you have no choice but to get traditional custom-made cabinetry if you need to maximize the use of available space especially if the area cannot accommodate standard sized RTA cabinets. But with the developments in product design and manufacturing methods, homeowners can now choose ready to assemble cabinetry that go beyond basic dimensions.

1. Bridge Wall Cabinets are ideal choices if you want to integrate your cabinet units with other wall mounted features in your kitchen remodeling. This type of ready to assemble cabinetry is also used to connect other wall cabinet units for a continuous look to the building blocks of your kitchen.

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2. Wall End Angle and Shelf Cabinets are perfect for display purposes. Another alternative if you wish to put some kitchenware into display is the addition of glass doors but if you want an airier feel and effect to your kitchen remodeling result then this type of RTA cabinets will do beautifully.

3. Sink Base Cabinets are used for holding one of the most utilized features in the heart of your home and this is your sink. This allows the space under the sin to still be used for storage.

4. Corner Base Cabinets are fitted into corners where standard sized RTA cabinets will not be able to function well. These are designed to make use of every square inch of floor space with additional options such as Lazy Susan, and diagonal corner base cabinet type.

5. Drawer Base Cabinets are best located in areas where specific kitchen items are stored such as linens, cutting tools, dining utensils and other smaller sized wares. This is a practical choice to easily find often used items in the area, promoting organization and adding to the functionality and productivity in the area.

6. Pantry and Oven Cabinets are innovative storage options for your kitchen remodeling project. Oven cabinet units are beautiful ideas to integrate appliances into your kitchen design. Pantry cabinets on the other hand are best for locations that offer less floor space to be used but can accommodate heights.

7. Single or Double Door Cabinets will be ideal depending on the area that you want to use up as well as the items that you plan to store in the cabinet units. This RTA cabinets construction comes in wall mounted or base types.

Ready to assemble cabinetry has come a long way from being a chap alternative to traditional custom made. So if you have creative plans for your kitchen remodeling, these are some of the common choices you have and you could also look for other sizes and construction for space efficiency.

Looking for kitchen cabinets that looks great and last for many practical years, without the hefty price? RTA Cabinet Hub offers premium cabinetry collections in a wide range of door and drawer front designs, finishes, types and sizes for your remodeling needs. Check out Classic Rope Cabinets that are as durable as they are beautiful.

About the Author: RTA Cabinet Hub offers premium cabinetry collections in a wide range of door and drawer front designs, finishes, types and sizes for your remodeling needs. Classic Rope Cabinets are as durable as they are beautiful.


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Learn About Bsf Recruitment 2012 To Be First To Avail 3 Benefits

Monday, March 17th, 2014
Learn About BSF Recruitment 2012 To Be First To Avail 3 Benefits



During the search for jobs, students come across a variety of options and hordes of jobs classified that it always a dilemma to select the one that they would appear in. Since most of the jobs are having entrance exams or interviews, it is important that the students be prepared to face the music when it comes to writing down fast in written exams and answering questions smartly and confidently in the interview rounds.

People have always wanted to score over others in terms of striking it big with an opportunity. This scenario is relieved of the tension if the students are eager to join the central armed police force through the BSF recruitment 2012. Since there are plenty of opportunities in border security force or BSF, students need to be alert to know about the publications for the BSF postings. This organisation of the Indian police force is quite large and therefore there is always a need for more personnel and the recruitment process is going on, at a continuous basis.

People who are interested for getting into the different posts should put in their application as and when the posts are published. There are many posts in different categories in the entire Border Security Force and so, the interested candidates are required to work for the future BSF recruitment by first keeping their eyes and ears open.

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This being a government organisation, the recruitment publication can be found in most of the daily newspapers and in the employment news columns of the papers or in the journals. Even, the internet is a good place to know about any latest news on the recruitment process.

People are required to be alert about the BSF recruitment 2012 so that they are able to enjoy 3 particular benefits of being a part of the border security forces.

Government jobs The Border Security Forces recruitment is for the posts in the Indian government and therefore, many people are interested to join the vast organisation. The salary and perks are like those in the other government postings and therefore are sought by people from all across the country. The promotions are also in accordance with the rules laid down by the government for the police forces in the country.

Job variety The vastness of BSF is a proof of the fact that the organisation can accommodate jobs of all types ranging from the grade IV to grade 1 officers, and this is the point of encouragement. There are advertisements for constables, assistant sub-inspectors, inspectors, junior engineers, and such others. Depending on the eligibility criteria laid down for the recruitment of the people, the BSF recruitment in 2012 will be conducted.

Plenty of opportunities Since the BSF is vast and is spread out in almost all parts of the country, the number of recruits in different posts are always quite high. So, it is no surprise that the recruitment advertisements are always for large number of posts.

There are either entrance exams or interviews, which the aspiring candidates need to pass, in order to secure the jobs. With sufficient budgetary allocations done every year for the defence organisations, the jobs through BSF recruitment 2012 will be better in terms of pay scales and professional satisfaction. Thousands of students look forward for appearing in the exams and need to work hard and put extra effort to emerge winners in the competition.

SarkariExam is the first job Portal in India dedicated to provide details of all Government Jobs. Explore

BSF Recruitment 2012




CISF Recruitment

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The Promotion Of Content Through Social Networking Sites Is Known As Virus Like Marketing. Internet Allows You The Opportunity To Stay Connected With Your Customers On A Current Basis.

Friday, March 14th, 2014
The Promotion Of Content Through Social Networking Sites Is Known As Virus-like Marketing. Internet Allows You The Opportunity To Stay Connected With Your Customers On A Current Basis.


Cindy O\\’Kane

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